Leadership

DEFINITION OF LEADERSHIP

BUS 3012-Fundamentals of Leadership
Dr. Samuel Palmeri
November 17, 2013

Leadership takes place when one person influences followers in a non-coercive approach to attain a goal. President, coach, director, and pastor are some titles of who a leader is. All of these titles are leaders of a group of people. A leader is someone who has a vision of a goal and has the ability to lead people to attain it. President Barack Obama is currently the President of the United States of America. Some people say that he is the leader of the free world. Being a leader and having leadership capabilities is different. Leadership is about being able to direct and influence a group of people. President Obama influenced a lot of people to vote for him back in 2008 because they felt that he could help change the way the nation has been operating. Due to his leadership skills, he has changed and influenced a lot in the United States. Being a leader has to come from within a person. A leader has to know who they are first before they can lead anyone. Being insecure, wanting co-workers to be friends, or showing favoritism are good examples of characteristics that are not leadership qualities.
In leadership positions, a person has to know how to ?

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Leadership Competency Model
In reflecting upon the Leadership Competency Model elements I think it is important for leaders to be able to give guidance on how to conduct an organization. Leaders make a lot of crucial and decisions. The ability to make good decisions is therefore essential for becoming a good leader. Decision making, the ability to make decisions, helps the leader make rights choices when there are several options and several paths to choose from. When making decisions they should make them with careful consideration as to how this decision will affect the team as a whole. A good leader must be able to make decision and communicate them clearly. Many organizations work towards a common goal and this goal should be made clear by a good leader and an organized action plan to achieve these goals should be set in place. Good leaders also inspire there team members to want to be successful. They encourage them and reward their achievements. Good leaders challenge their team members and foster talent among them. They support new and innovative ideas from their staff.
A good leader also knows the importance of earning the trust of their team members. They know that the strength of a leader comes from the people that follow and support her. And that is why a good leader takes good care in building relationships. Good leaders always maintain a positive outlook where the organization is concerned. The Yes Attitude, the power of positivity. This quality is a required not just for a leader but everybody. However, this is especially necessary for a leader. A Leader needs to be positive and motivate his team, in times that are hard and times that are brutal. When times are tough and his team is absolutely down, when times are really frustrating, a leader is the who carries his team and his organization forward and that is what a leader needs to do ?

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Leadership

Jay Mallin/ZUMA/Newscom
Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
1. Define leadership and contrast leadership and management.
2. Summarize the conclusions of trait theories of leadership.
3. Identify the central tenets and main limitations of behavioral theories.
4. Assess contingency theories of leadership by their level of support.
5. Compare and contrast charismatic and transformational leadership.
6. Define authentic leadership and show why effective leaders exemplify ethics and trust.
7. Demonstrate the role mentoring plays in our understanding of leadership.
8. Address challenges to the effectiveness of leadership.
9. Assess whether charismatic and transformational leadership generalize across cultures.
I am more afraid of an army of 100 sheep led by a lion than an army of 100 lions led by a sheep.
Talleyrand
Private Equity?

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Leadership

Leadership

Jay Mallin/ZUMA/Newscom
Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
1. Define leadership and contrast leadership and management.
2. Summarize the conclusions of trait theories of leadership.
3. Identify the central tenets and main limitations of behavioral theories.
4. Assess contingency theories of leadership by their level of support.
5. Compare and contrast charismatic and transformational leadership.
6. Define authentic leadership and show why effective leaders exemplify ethics and trust.
7. Demonstrate the role mentoring plays in our understanding of leadership.
8. Address challenges to the effectiveness of leadership.
9. Assess whether charismatic and transformational leadership generalize across cultures.
I am more afraid of an army of 100 sheep led by a lion than an army of 100 lions led by a sheep.
Talleyrand
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What is the difference between management and leadership? It is a question that has been asked more than once and also answered in different ways. The biggest difference between managers and leaders is the way they motivate the people who work or follow them, and this sets the tone for most other aspects of what they do.
Many people, by the way, are both. They have management jobs, but they realize that you cannot buy hearts, especially to follow them down a difficult path, and so act as leaders too.
Managers have subordinates
By definition, managers have subordinates – unless their title is honorary and given as a mark of seniority, in which case the title is a misnomer and their power over others is other than formal authority.
Authoritarian, transactional style
Managers have a position of authority vested in them by the company, and their subordinates work for them and largely do as they are told. Management style is transactional, in that the manager tells the subordinate what to do, and the subordinate does this not because they are a blind robot, but because they have been promised a reward (at minimum their salary) for doing so.
Work focus
Managers are paid to get things done (they are subordinates too), often within tight constraints of time and money. They thus naturally pass on this work focus to their subordinates.
Seek comfort
An interesting research finding about managers is that they tend to come from stable home backgrounds and led relatively normal and comfortable lives. This leads them to be relatively risk-averse and they will seek to avoid conflict where possible. In terms of people, they generally like to run a ‘happy ship’.
Leaders have followers
Leaders do not have subordinates – at least not when they are leading. Many organizational leaders do have subordinates, but only because they are also managers. But when they want to lead, they have to give up formal authoritarian control, because to lead is to have followers, and following is always a voluntary activity.
Charismatic, transformational style
Telling people what to do does not inspire them to follow you. You have to appeal to them, showing how following them will lead to their hearts’ desire. They must want to follow you enough to stop what they are doing and perhaps walk into danger and situations that they would not normally consider risking.
Leaders with a stronger charisma find it easier to attract people to their cause. As a part of their persuasion they typically promise transformational benefits, such that their followers will not just receive extrinsic rewards but will somehow become better people.
People focus
Although many leaders have a charismatic style to some extent, this does not require a loud personality. They are always good with people, and quiet styles that give credit to others (and takes blame on themselves) are very effective at creating the loyalty that great leaders engender.
Although leaders are good with people, this does not mean they are friendly with them. In order to keep the mystique of leadership, they often retain a degree of separation and aloofness.
This does not mean that leaders do not pay attention to tasks – in fact they are often very achievement-focused. What they do realize, however, is the importance of enthusing others to work towards their vision.
Seek risk
In the same study that showed managers as risk-averse, leaders appeared as risk-seeking, although they are not blind thrill-seekers. When pursuing their vision, they consider it natural to encounter problems and hurdles that must be overcome along the way. They are thus comfortable with risk and will see routes that others avoid as potential opportunities for advantage and will happily break rules in order to get things done.
A surprising number of these leaders had some form of handicap in their lives which they had to overcome. Some had traumatic childhoods, some had problems such as dyslexia, others were shorter than average. This perhaps taught them the independence of mind that is needed to go out on a limb and not worry about what others are thinking about you.
In summary
This table summarizes the above (and more) and gives a sense of the differences between being a leader and being a manager. This is, of course, an illustrative characterization, and there is a whole spectrum between either ends of these scales along which each role can range. And many people lead and manage at the same time, and so may display a combination of behaviors.

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Running Head: LEADERSHIP

Leadership

Abstract
Leadership comes in many forms. Some people are natural born leaders while others must train to become a leader. Leaders will face many challenges in their career, some are anticipated and others are not. How a leader meets those challenges and accomplishes the tasks required to work through them is what separates a great leader from the rest.

Leadership
Introduction
Merriam-Webster defines leadership as ?

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In response to me being relieved from my duties as the SNCOIC of the Customer Service section, I believe was over exaggerated, and the reason behind my thoughts are, as far as I know, the reason behind it was that some diaries were missing/shredded, which at the time was not noticed, but about two weeks before our MCAAT inspection, we were going through the diaries to make sure they were all good to go, and that?

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Leadership

A leader is someone who has the ability to influence followers that have the same determination and outcomes for change as they do. Not all leaders are famous people, or people in high positions of power. There are leaders all around us. They are just ones that possess leadership qualities that not all people have. This does not mean though that they are born leaders; this also doesn?

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Leadership can be defined as a process by which one individual influences others toward the attainment of group or organizational goals. Three points about the definition of leadership should be emphasized. First, leadership is a social influence process. Leadership cannot exist without a leader and one or more followers. Second, leadership elicits voluntary action on the part of followers. The voluntary nature of compliance separates leadership from other types of influence based on formal authority. Finally, leadership results in followers’ behavior that is purposeful and goal-directed in some sort of organized setting. Many, although not all, studies of leadership focus on the nature of leadership in the workplace.
Leadership is probably the most frequently studied topic in the organizational sciences. Thousands of leadership studies have been published and thousands of pages on leadership have been written in academic books and journals, business-oriented publications, and general-interest publications. Despite this, the precise nature of leadership and its relationship to key criterion variables such as subordinate satisfaction, commitment, and performance is still uncertain, to the point where Fred Luthans, in his book Organizational Behavior (2005), said that “it [leadership] does remain pretty much of a ‘black box’ or unexplainable concept.”
Leadership should be distinguished from management. Management involves planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling, and a manager is someone who performs these functions. A manager has formal authority by virtue of his or her position or office. Leadership, by contrast, primarily deals with influence. A manager may or may not be an effective leader. A leader’s ability to influence others may be based on a variety of factors other than his or her formal authority or position.
In the sections that follow, the development of leadership studies and theories over time is briefly traced. Table 1 provides a summary of the major theoretical approaches.
Historical Leadership Theories |
Leadership Theory | Time of Introduction | Major Tenets |
Trait Theories | 1930s | Individual characteristics of leaders are different than those of nonleaders. |
Behavioral Theories | 1940s and 1950s | The behaviors of effective leaders are different than the behaviors of ineffective leaders. Two major classes of leader behavior are task-oriented behavior and relationship-oriented behavior. |
Contingency Theories | 1960s and 1970s | Factors unique to each situation determine whether specific leader characteristics and behaviors will be effective. |
Historical Leadership Theories |
Leadership Theory | Time of Introduction | Major Tenets |
Leader-Member Exchange | 1970s | Leaders from high-quality relationships with some subordinates but not others. The quality of leader-subordinates relationship affects numerous workplace outcomes. |
Charismatic Leadership | 1970s and 1980s | Effective leaders inspire subordinates to commit themselves to goals by communicating a vision, displaying charismatic behavior, and setting a powerful personal example. |
Substitutes foe Leadership | 1970s | Characteristics of the organization, task, and subordinates may substitute for or negate the effects of leadership behaviors. |
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT
Three main theoretical frameworks have dominated leadership research at different points in time. These included the trait approach (1930s and 1940s), the behavioral approach (1940s and 1950s), and the contingency or situational approach (1960s and 1970s).
TRAIT APPROACH.
The scientific study of leadership began with a focus on the traits of effective leaders. The basic premise behind trait theory was that effective leaders are born, not made, thus the name sometimes applied to early versions of this idea, the “great man” theory. Many leadership studies based on this theoretical framework were conducted in the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s.
Leader trait research examined the physical, mental, and social characteristics of individuals. In general, these studies simply looked for significant associations between individual traits and measures of leadership effectiveness. Physical traits such as height, mental traits such as intelligence, and social traits such as personality attributes were all subjects of empirical research.
The initial conclusion from studies of leader traits was that there were no universal traits that consistently separated effective leaders from other individuals. In an important review of the leadership literature published in 1948, Ralph Stogdill concluded that the existing research had not demonstrated the utility of the trait approach.
Several problems with early trait research might explain the perceived lack of significant findings. First, measurement theory at the time was not highly sophisticated. Little was known about the psychometric properties of the measures used to operationalize traits. As a result, different studies were likely to use different measures to assess the same construct, which made it very difficult to replicate findings. In addition, many of the trait studies relied on samples of teenagers or lower-level managers.
Early trait research was largely atheoretical, offering no explanations for the proposed relationship between individual characteristics and leadership.
Finally, early trait research did not consider the impact of situational variables that might moderate the relationship between leader traits and measures of leader effectiveness. As a result of the lack of consistent findings linking individual traits to leadership effectiveness, empirical studies of leader traits were largely abandoned in the 1950s.
LEADER BEHAVIOR APPROACH.
Partially as a result of the disenchantment with the trait approach to leadership that occurred by the beginning of the 1950s, the focus of leadership research shifted away from leader traits to leader behaviors. The premise of this stream of research was that the behaviors exhibited by leaders are more important than their physical, mental, or emotional traits. The two most famous behavioral leadership studies took place at Ohio State University and the University of Michigan in the late 1940s and 1950s. These studies sparked hundreds of other leadership studies and are still widely cited.
The Ohio State studies utilized the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ), administering it to samples of individuals in the military, manufacturing companies, college administrators, and student leaders. Answers to the questionnaire were factor-analyzed to determine if common leader behaviors emerged across samples. The conclusion was that there were two distinct aspects of leadership that describe how leaders carry out their role.
Two factors, termed consideration and initiating structure, consistently appeared. Initiating structure, sometimes called task-oriented behavior, involves planning, organizing, and coordinating the work of subordinates. Consideration involves showing concern for subordinates, being supportive, recognizing subordinates’ accomplishments, and providing for subordinates’ welfare.
The Michigan leadership studies took place at about the same time as those at Ohio State. Under the general direction of Rensis Likert, the focus of the Michigan studies was to determine the principles and methods of leadership that led to productivity and job satisfaction. The studies resulted in two general leadership behaviors or orientations: an employee orientation and a production orientation. Leaders with an employee orientation showed genuine concern for interpersonal relations. Those with a production orientation focused on the task or technical aspects of the job.
The conclusion of the Michigan studies was that an employee orientation and general instead of close supervision yielded better results. Likert eventually developed four “systems” of management based on these studies; he advocated System 4 (the participative-group system, which was the most participatory set of leader behaviors) as resulting in the most positive outcomes.
One concept based largely on the behavioral approach to leadership effectiveness was the Managerial (or Leadership) Grid, developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton. The grid combines “concern for production” with “concern for people” and presents five alternative behavioral styles of leadership. An individual who emphasized neither production was practicing “impoverished management” according to the grid. If a person emphasized concern for people and placed little emphasis on production, he was terms a “country-club” manager.
Conversely, a person who emphasized a concern for production but paid little attention to the concerns of subordinates was a “task” manager. A person who tried to balance concern for production and concern for people was termed a “middle-of-the-road” manager.
Finally, an individual who was able to simultaneously exhibit a high concern for production and a high concern for people was practicing “team management.” According to the prescriptions of the grid, team management was the best leadership approach. The Managerial Grid became a major consulting tool and was the basis for a considerable amount of leadership training in the corporate world.
The assumption of the leader behavior approach was that there were certain behaviors that would be universally effective for leaders. Unfortunately, empirical research has not demonstrated consistent relationships between task-oriented or person-oriented leader behaviors and leader effectiveness. Like trait research, leader behavior research did not consider situational influences that might moderate the relationship between leader behaviors and leader effectiveness.
CONTINGENCY (SITUATIONAL) APPROACH.
Contingency or situational theories of leadership propose that the organizational or work group context affects the extent to which given leader traits and behaviors will be effective. Contingency theories gained prominence in the late 1960s and 1970s. Four of the more well-known contingency theories are Fiedler’s contingency theory, path-goal theory, the Vroom-Yetton-Jago decision-making model of leadership, and the situational leadership theory. Each of these approaches to leadership is briefly described in the paragraphs that follow.
Introduced in 1967, Fiedler’s contingency theory was the first to specify how situational factors interact with leader traits and behavior to influence leadership effectiveness. The theory suggests that the “favorability” of the situation determines the effectiveness of task- and person-oriented leader behavior.
Favorability is determined by (1) the respect and trust that followers have for the leader; (2) the extent to which subordinates’ responsibilities can be structured and performance measured; and (3) the control the leader has over subordinates’ rewards. The situation is most favorable when followers respect and trust the leader, the task is highly structured, and the leader has control over rewards and punishments.
Fiedler’s research indicated that task-oriented leaders were more effective when the situation was either highly favorable or highly unfavorable, but that person-oriented leaders were more effective in the moderately favorable or unfavorable situations. The theory did not necessarily propose that leaders could adapt their leadership styles to different situations, but that leaders with different leadership styles would be more effective when placed in situations that matched their preferred style.
Fiedler’s contingency theory has been criticized on both conceptual and methodological grounds. However, empirical research has supported many of the specific propositions of the theory, and it remains an important contribution to the understanding of leadership effectiveness.
Path-goal theory was first presented in a 1971Administrative Science Quarterly article by Robert House. Path-goal theory proposes that subordinates’ characteristics and characteristics of the work environment determine which leader behaviors will be more effective. Key characteristics of subordinates identified by the theory are locus of control, work experience, ability, and the need for affiliation. Important environmental characteristics named by the theory are the nature of the task, the formal authority system, and the nature of the work group. The theory includes four different leader behaviors, which include directive leadership, supportive leadership, participative leadership, and achievement-oriented leadership.
According to the theory, leader behavior should reduce barriers to subordinates’ goal attainment, strengthen subordinates’ expectancies that improved performance will lead to valued rewards, and provide coaching to make the path to payoffs easier for subordinates. Path-goal theory suggests that the leader behavior that will accomplish these tasks depends upon the subordinate and environmental contingency factors.
Path-goal theory has been criticized because it does not consider interactions among the contingency factors and also because of the complexity of its underlying theoretical model, expectancy theory. Empirical research has provided some support for the theory’s propositions, primarily as they relate to directive and supportive leader behaviors.
The Vroom-Yetton-Jago decision-making model was introduced by Victor Vroom and Phillip Yetton in 1973 and revised by Vroom and Jago in 1988. The theory focuses primarily on the degree of subordinate participation that is appropriate in different situations. Thus, it emphasizes the decision-making style of the leader.
There are five types of leader decision-making styles, which are labeled AI, AII, CI, CII, and G. These styles range from strongly autocratic (AI), to strongly democratic (G). According to the theory, the appropriate style is determined by answers to up to eight diagnostic questions, which relate to such contingency factors as the importance of decision quality, the structure of the problem, whether subordinates have enough information to make a quality decision, and the importance of subordinate commitment to the decision.
The Vroom-Yetton-Jago model has been criticized for its complexity, for its assumption that the decision makers’ goals are consistent with organizational goals, and for ignoring the skills needed to arrive at group decisions to difficult problems. Empirical research has supported some of the prescriptions of the theory.
The situational leadership theory was initially introduced in 1969 and revised in 1977 by Hersey and Blanchard. The theory suggests that the key contingency factor affecting leaders’ choice of leadership style is the task-related maturity of the subordinates. Subordinate maturity is defined in terms of the ability of subordinates to accept responsibility for their own task-related behavior. The theory classifies leader behaviors into the two broad classes of task-oriented and relationship-oriented behaviors. The major proposition of situational leadership theory is that the effectiveness of task and relationship-oriented leadership depends upon the maturity of a leader’s subordinates.
Situational leadership theory has been criticized on both theoretical and methodological grounds. However, it remains one of the better-known contingency theories of leadership and offers important insights into the interaction between subordinate ability and leadership style.

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Leadership

We can learn valuable leadership lessons from the people that have been training leaders for over 200 years, the U.S. military. The idea most people have of leadership in the military has a lot to do with yelling and threatening. That just doesn’t work in the modern military. The civilian world can learn a lot by studying how the military trains its leaders. I’ve trained military leaders in communication skills, and I’ve also studied and been a part of their leadership training.

The military defines leadership as the process of influencing others to accomplish a mission (a job) by providing purpose, direction, and motivation.

Military leaders are trained to understand the four factors of leadership:

1. The Led (your employees). Some will respond to punishment, some need more supervision. Some respond better to praise.

2. The Leader. You must know yourself, what you know, what you need to know, and what you can do. You must treat everybody with respect.

3. The Situation. What works in one situation, may not work in another. What you do depends on the competence, motivation, and commitment of your employees. The timing of a decision is also important.

4. Communication. You must communicate your vision of what you want orally, through writing, physical gestures, or a combination. Your choice of words, tone, actions, and clarity and conciseness all help blend the leadership image you want to portray.

All four factors are always present, but how you use them will differ based on the situation and the people involved.

The military teaches an easy to remember way to keep the most important leadership principles in mind. Learn the BE, KNOW, DO principles of leadership:

-BE….
*a role model to your people
*a good, honorable person
*an example of individual values
*able to resolve complex ethical dilemmas (do the right thing)

-KNOW…
*the four factors of leadership and how they affect each other
*yourself
*standards for job success
*human nature (to know what makes your people tick, you need to talk with and listen to them)
*your job
*your people’s capabilities and limits

-DO….
*provide a purpose, explain the “why”
*provide direction when needed; plan; maintain standards of excellence; set goals; make decisions and solve problems; supervise, evaluate, teach, coach, counsel, and mentor
*provide motivation, take care of your people, develop teams, reward excellence, correct low performance

The best leaders are themselves and are flexible in the way they interact with people. What style a leader chooses to use depends on the person, the situation and any change in the environment.

The three leadership styles are:

1. Directing. Leaders should use this style when time is short, or when your people lack experience, knowledge, or competence. Don’t think this style will anger or frustrate employees who need more direction.

This is actually the kind of style they expect and appreciate. Imagine how stressful it would be if you asked an inexperienced, low level employee for direct help in avoiding a nuclear war! Yelling, swearing, temper tantrums, and demeaning people isn’t a directing style; it’s just plain unprofessional.

2. Participating. Use this style if your people support your goals and have some competence. This is where you, the leader, involves the led in determining what to do and how to do it. The leader asks for information and recommendations, but still makes the decision. Allowing participation can be a powerful team building exercise. It helps build trust, confidence, and support for the final decision. To ask for advice is a sign of strength. Your employees will respect you for it. But as a leader, you still have to make a decision based on what you think is right. As a leader, YOU are responsible.

3. Delegating. This is where the leader delegates problem solving and decision making authority to an employee or work group. It is an appropriate style to use with highly competent, mature employees who support group goals and are motivated to perform their jobs.

Delegating is often the most effective leadership style and it should take less of your time. But, you have to train your people to accept delegation. Leadership experts Tom Peters and Warren Bennis say a lot of confusion about managing and leading comes from the way we train our so-called civilian leaders. Bennis says Americans are an overmanaged and underled people. Why? Because we simply don’t train LEADERS; we train technicians and staff people to be MANAGERS.

There is an important difference. A good way to look at it is a good manager should be hardworking, tolerant, fair. The manager should run a smooth and efficient department or company. The good manager should be proficient at planning, organizing, controlling, and leading. He or she must clarify everybody’s role and function, provide appropriate rewards and punishment, be considerate and meet peoples’ social needs. He or she is also committed to the organization.

A good leader is all that a good manager is, and more. A good manager is, as they’d say in the military, “technically and tactically proficient.” He or she influences people to attain goals through the use of power. But a good leader must INSPIRE and MOTIVATE to get people to go beyond what they ever thought they could accomplish.

Bennis, in his book WHY LEADERS CAN’T LEAD, says “Managers are people who do things right; Leaders are people who do the right things.”

What we must do is train our best managers to be something more. Our present and future leaders must know how to be good managers and:

-must have a vision of the big picture that employees can identify with
-must help shape a corporate value system all can identify with
-must trust their people and in turn, will earn their trust
-will tend to be less predictable
-will create an atmosphere of change
-will stand for something
-will be able to motivate them to see it, and
-have the ability to communicate that vision to their people.

The best leaders should stay away from the mundane decision-making best made at a lower level. They have to stay away from being bogged down by a stifling bureaucracy that saps strength and initiative. For instance, historians say former President Jimmy Carter was a leader who got caught up in all the details. By doing that, you lose focus on the big picture the effective leader should always concentrate on.

Effective leaders will establish clear and measurable goals based on input from diverse groups in an organization. Success here is based on the ability to be able to truly listen.

The effective leader allows himself and others to take risks and to be creative. Have you ever noticed how much FEAR there seems to be in most organizations? You can trace that fear back to the nominal leader of that organization. The leader should set the tone. The leader will allow, and even encourage what baseball people call “errors of enthusiasm.” It is how people and organizations grow.

A great leader will EMPOWER people. He or she will learn to:

-make people feel important, will return phone calls promptly, take more than his share of the blame (and a little less than his share of the credit) will want to fix a problem, and may even do it personally (remember, there is a danger here of losing focus on the big picture).

-value lifelong learning and mastery (we learn from our mistakes). Encourage people to learn for job competence and for fun.

-make people feel they are a part of something greater by letting them in on decisions that affect their jobs and lives (community building)

-buy into their vision of the future.

Let’s take a look at leadership in action. Remember the Tylenol poisoning scare from a few years ago? People who were taking the product were dying and nobody knew why. Johnson & Johnson Chief Executive Officer James Burke had one of the most difficult decisions in his life and he knew it. Should he pull Tylenol from the shelves?

Burke knew the cost would be staggering. Marketing experts at the time predicted the end of the Tylenol brand.

You know what Burke did; he pulled the product from the stores.

Why did Burke do what he did? He said his decision came from the Johnson & Johnson credo, “We believe our first responsibility is to the doctors, nurses, and patients, to mothers and all others who use our products and services.”

Burke knew and understood the values his company stood on and used it to make a decision. He also kept the big picture in mind. His decision cost Johnson & Johnson dearly in the short run. But because Burke did the right thing, Tylenol gained more trust and customer loyalty than they could have bought with millions of dollars of advertising.

CONCLUSION

Those of you familiar with the Total Quality Management concept understand the competitive and effective organizations and leaders must get away from a QUANTITY emphasis and toward QUALITY… in life, in work, and in their product or service.

You, too, can be a great leader. You can easily apply the centuries-old tried and tested American military leadership principles to lead any organization. Remember, the best leaders are not born that way; they were made. Leaders are so often ordinary people with extraordinary determination.

Be human, treat people with respect, know your people, know yourself. Have a grand vision of where you and your organization needs to go and be able to clearly communicate that vision. Establish measurable goals so you know if you’re reaching your target. Let every person know what they do makes a difference.

Give people the tools to do their job, trust them to do it, and get out of their way.

And finally, real leaders face the music even when they dislike the tune.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Associates, Department of Behavioral Sciences and Leadership, U.S. Military Academy. Leadership in Organizations. Garden City Park, NY: Avery Publishing Group Inc., 1988

Bennis, Warren. On Becoming a Leader. New York: Addison Wesley Publishing, 1989.

Bennis, Warren. Why Leaders Can?

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It seems that Gene One does not receive the credibility needed to remain focused. Gene One experience quite some challenges due to not having all of the required board members. Even in this situation, Gene One can still operate at 100% and take on their challenges. Many challenges including: biotech investments, little or no credibility, compensation issues and concerns as well as many other areas.

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leadership

According to me leadership is the self made inner quality of a person which make him successful in his/her life. Also, leadership creates and connects the boss and his/her different colleagues working with them by creating a sense of social and ethical relationship. Moreover, leadership is the base of every team to be working and to be successful. Another defination of leadership is that Leadership is the tact of creating relations between you and your parteners through which you and your team can perform efficiently and effectively and can easily complete their tasks. Also, leadership helps a person to be sussfull in the life by understanding their own potential. It is a process where one individual influences other group members to work towards the achievement of defined group goals. However, leadership can be achieved through communicative interaction between members in a group. It engages persuasion and discussion among group’s members. Group leaders must be flexible to accept the changing condition of the group. In addition, a significant part of effective leadership is the close connection between the leaders and group members. Group leaders must try to understand the needs and beliefs of their members for them to be able to modify the members’ attitudes and behaviors in supporting the group goals.
Neverthless, effective leaders naturally motive people from their actions, which include showing respect, listening, reflecting, and negotiating through conflict. Leaders encourage and empower people to achieve success rather than place blame. Leaders have solid vision and unshakeable persistence in achieving a goal. Their efforts are empowered by their ability to manage and organize both activities and time in their busy schedules. A good leader is courageous, able to make decisions without hesitation, and maintains integrity of word and deed. Dependability is also a key trait for a leader must always be there for their group. Sound judgment and sensibility are also features of a leader, with loyalty, enthusiasm, endurance, and initiative rounding out the ever expanding list. In my opinion Leadership functions are those professional and personal tasks that enable leaders to influence others. Having the title of a leader is not everything you’re not a leader until you have behaved in certain ways. There are many functions that describe the actions and methods of a recreation leader. There are technical functions which include having the use of knowledge, methods, techniques, and equipment necessary for the performance for the task. Being able to work with and through people is a human relation function that is needed to complete the task. Conceptual function is probably one of the most important functions which know ones place. Knowing your role in the field is most important because then you could understand your position to be able to strategically plan for the position. The degree of functioning that the leader exhibits in technical, human relations and conceptual areas varies according to the specific job description.
Another qualities which promote a person as an effective leader is communication. To illustrate, there are roles of recreation leaders. The leader must take on the role of a communicator communication is important and it should be studied and practiced. The leader is an enabler this is the role that requires that the leader help people to grow in their ability to solve, cope with, or satisfy their own recreational needs and interest. The leader must be and innovator this is the person who is able to play with, juggle, rearrange, and visualize old ideas so that they become new ideas. The leader is also has the role of a dreamer this person not only observes change but also responds to it and causes it. Leaders need to have the role of being a motivator the leader must understand what motivates people, how to influence what motivates people, how individuals react uniquely to different situations, and what motivational style is best for each setting. They must also have problem solving skills which is being able to solve the needs of those persons the organization service. Last but not least the leader must take on the role of being a decision maker.

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